1. Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that market manipulation as referred to in paragraph 2 constitutes a criminal offence at least in serious cases and when committed intentionally.
2. For the purposes of this Directive, market manipulation shall comprise the following activities:
(a) entering into a transaction, placing an order to trade or any other behaviour which:
unless the reasons for so doing of the person who entered into the transactions or issued the orders to trade are legitimate, and those transactions or orders to trade are in conformity with accepted market practices on the trading venue concerned;
(b) entering into a transaction, placing an order to trade or any o…