1. Member States may adopt legislative measures restricting, wholly or partly, the data subject's right of access to the extent that, and for as long as such a partial or complete restriction constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society with due regard for the fundamental rights and legitimate interests of the natural person concerned, in order to:
(a) avoid obstructing official or legal inquiries, investigations or procedures;
(b) avoid prejudicing the prevention, detection, investigation or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties;
(c) protect public security;
(d) protect national security;
(e) protect the rights and freedoms of others.