1. In the cases referred to in Articles 18a to 24, as well as in other cases of higher risk that are identified by Member States or obliged entities, Member States shall require obliged entities to apply enhanced customer due diligence measures to manage and mitigate those risks appropriately.
Enhanced customer due diligence measures need not be invoked automatically with respect to branches or majorityowned subsidiaries of obliged entities established in the Union which are located in high-risk third countries, where those branches or majority-owned subsidiaries fully comply with the group-wide policies and procedures in accordance with Article 45. Member States shall ensure that those cases are handled by obliged entities by using a risk-based approach.
2. Member States shall require obliged entities to examine, as far as reasonably possible, the background and purpose of all transactions that fulfil at least one of the following conditions:
(i) they are complex transactions;