1. Member States shall ensure that this Article applies to trusts and other types of legal arrangements, such as, inter alia, fiducie, certain types of Treuhand or fideicomiso, where such arrangements have a structure or functions similar to trusts. Member States shall identify the characteristics to determine where legal arrangements have a structure or functions similar to trusts with regard to such legal arrangements governed under their law.
Each Member State shall require that trustees of any express trust administered in that Member State obtain and hold adequate, accurate and up-to-date information on beneficial ownership regarding the trust. That information shall include the identity of:
(a) the settlor(s) ;
(b) the trustee(s);
(c) the protector(s) (if any);
(d) the beneficiaries or class of beneficiaries; and
(e) any other natural person exercising effective control over the trust.
Member States shall ensure that breaches of this Article are subject to effective, proportionat…