(c) carries out any action through a remote channel which may imply a risk of payment fraud or other abuses.
2. With regard to the initiation of electronic payment transactions as referred to in point (b) of paragraph 1, Member States shall ensure that, for electronic remote payment transactions, payment service providers apply strong customer authentication that includes elements which dynamically link the transaction to a specific amount and a specific payee.
3. With regard to paragraph 1, Member States shall ensure that payment service providers have in place adequate security measures to protect the confidentiality and integrity of payment service users' personalised security credentials.